For current news and resources see the Framework WordPress site Introduction This Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education Framework grows out of a belief that information literacy as an educational reform movement will realize its potential only through a richer, more complex set of core ideas.
Factual[ edit ] Bord et al. First, journalists distort reality by making scientific errors. Second, they distort by keying on human-interest stories rather than scientific content.
And third, journalists distort by rigid adherence to the construct of balanced coverage. Narrative[ edit ] According to Shoemaker and Reese,  controversy is one of the main variables affecting story choice among news editors, along with human interest, prominence, timeliness, celebrity, and proximity.
Coverage of climate change has been accused of falling victim to the journalistic norm of "personalistation".
L Bennet defines this trait as: In this construct, it is permissible to air a highly partisan opinion, provided this view is accompanied by a competing opinion.
But recently scientists and scholars have challenged the legitimacy of this journalistic core value. Balance[ edit ] The notion of balanced coverage may make perfect sense when covering a political convention, but in the culture of science, balancing opposing views may be neither fair nor truthful.
As such, many experts argue that it is misleading to give scientific mavericks or advocates equal time with established mainstream scientists. In a survey of articles from four top United States newspapers between andtwo scholars  found that most articles gave as much time to the small group of climate change doubters as to the scientific consensus view.
As Stephen Schneider put it: It means apportioning weight according to the balance of evidence. A study that tracked press reports about a climate change article in the journal Nature found that "results and conclusions of the study were widely misrepresented, especially in the news media, to make the consequences seem more catastrophic and the timescale shorter.
In a report produced for the Institute for Public Policy Research Gill Ereaut and Nat Segnit reported that alarmist language is frequently employed by newspapers, popular magazine and in campaign literature put out by government and environment groups.
The term alarmist can be used as a pejorative by critics of mainstream climate science to describe those that endorse it.
MIT meteorologist Kerry Emanuel wrote that labeling someone as an "alarmist" is "a particularly infantile smear considering what is at stake. In the s, global cooling, a claim with limited scientific support even during the height of the media frenzy over global cooling"the possibility of anthropogenic warming dominated the peer-reviewed literature"  was widely reported in the press.
Several media pieces have claimed that, since the even-at-the-time-poorly-supported theory of global cooling was shown to be false, that the well-supported theory of global warming can also be dismissed. For example, an article in The Hindu by Kapista and Bashkirtsev wrote: An editorial in The Time magazine on June 24,quoted concerned scientists as voicing alarm over the atmosphere 'growing gradually cooler for the past three decades', 'the unexpected persistence and thickness of pack ice in the waters around Iceland,' and other harbingers of an ice age that could prove 'catastrophic.
Let's go through some of them. Almost exactly 30 years ago the world was in another panic about climate change. However, it wasn't the thought of global warming that concerned us. It was the fear of its opposite, global cooling.
The doom-sayers were wrong in the past and it's entirely possible they're wrong this time as well.Second, a focus on practices (in the plural) avoids the mistaken impression that there is one distinctive approach common to all science—a single “scientific method”—or that uncertainty is a universal attribute of science.
Apr 06, · In this video — the fourth in our series of videos that promote science and critical thinking through the use of humor, wit, and satire — we present a fun and informative look at the principles of Skepticism. If you would like to show your support for these videos, please make a tax-deductible.
Skepticism/critical thinking our local media have not exactly covered themselves in glory covering this story. Like many advocates of science-based medicine, I was dismayed at the $ Together, the Center and Foundation for Critical Thinking have hosted critical thinking academies and conferences for 36 years.
During that time, we have played a key role in defining and advancing the principles and best practices of fairminded critical thought in education and society. Teaching critical thinking skills is a necessity with our students because they’re crucial skills for living life.
As such, every teacher is looking for interesting ways to integrate it into classrooms. But what exactly are critical thinking skills, . We have seen that science is a more dynamic and useful problem solver than philosophy and that, in our view, philosophical questions eventually are replaced by scientific answers.